PGS & PGD
What is Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis?
Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis or PGD is a laboratory test that is used in conjunction with an IVF cycle, to evaluate embryos created by IVF for known genetic abnormalities and familial diseases, before embryo implantation and pregnancy. The goal is to assure the healthiest embryos are transferred to the uterus for implantation, to increase the likelihood of delivering a healthy child.
PGD is the only way to know before pregnancy whether the embryo is affected. Prenatal testing techniques include amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling for genetic disorders in a fetus during pregnancy. PGD does not eliminate the need for prenatal testing.
PGS (Preimplantation Genetic Screening) is used to screen the entire genetic profile of an embryo created by IVF, before transfer to the uterus. It screens for normal chromosome count, to gain information about the potential future health of a child born from an in vitro fertilized embryo, and to identify embryos at risk for miscarriage.
PGD and PGS Benefits
PGD has benefited countless individuals and couples. Most commonly, PGD offers benefits in the following cases:
- Women who have experienced recurrent miscarriages, to reduce the rate of pregnancy loss by 50% and increase take home baby rates.
- Women who are over age 35 are at high risk of embryos with abnormal numbers of chromosomes. The risk of an embryo with abnormal chromosomes increases with the woman’s age. PGD can identify an embryo that has an abnormal number of chromosome, as in Down’s Syndrome.
- Several failed experiences with In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)
- A family history of Huntington Disease
- Carriers of recessive genetic diseases
- Carriers of sex-linked genetic diseases. Sex linked disorders and abnormalities are caused by a defective gene on the X chromosome. They are single gene disorders. Most X- linked disorders affect men. Gender selection can prevent passing on a sex-linked disease.
- To identify the healthiest embryo for implantation
- Gender balancing
PGD can test for over 100 genetic disorders. It can reduce the risk of conceiving a child with a genetic disorder, but it cannot eliminate the risk completely.
PGS benefits include:
- Lower miscarriage rates are lower after PGS
- Gain information about embryos to minimize the risk of transferring embryos with chromosomal abnormalities before implantation
At Ohio Reproductive Medicine in Columbus, Ohio, we work with you to understand your individual and family’s needs. We offer PGD to help parents achieve family balance and to address any concerns that may benefit from this reproductive technology. This testing helps couples increase their chances of having a child without certain genetic disorders.
Single Gene Disorders
A family history or genetic screening may reveal that a couple has a very high risk for having a child with severe physical or mental disabilities. Provided the gene mutation responsible for the disability is known, in vitro fertilization with preimplantation genetic diagnosis provides the opportunity to select embryos for implantation with only a minimal chance of transmitting the disorder. After in vitro fertilization, on day 3 or 5 a sample of cells are removed for analysis to see which embryo is least likely to contain the concerning mutation and is therefore the safest to transfer.
Numerous genetic diseases are amenable to preimplantation genetic diagnosis. Commonly screened diseases include Cystic Fibrosis, Huntington’s disease, Fragile X, Sickle Cell, Tag Sachs, Spinal Muscular Atrophy, and Muscular Dystrophy. If the gene abnormality is known, most genetic diseases can be screened with this technology. Consultation with a genetics counselor is highly recommended before proceeding with preimplantation genetic diagnosis.
PGD tests are highly accurate but cannot guarantee 100% accuracy. Some genetic abnormalities may not be detected. For this reason, our fertility experts recommend prenatal genetic testing.
Family Balancing and PGD
At Ohio Reproductive Medicine, we know that each child can be a wonderful addition to a family. However, some families can have more children of one specific gender. With PGD and gender selection, our Ohio Reproductive Medicine team can help couples achieve a more even family balance.
PGD for family balancing can help parents add a beautiful baby boy or girl to the family. It is the only available method that is almost 100% accurate. When the embryos are a few days old, the specialist using a microscope removes several cells, which are analyzed to assure they have genetic material. Then the specialist can check for the X and Y chromosomes to determine the gender of each embryo. The patient is informed of the results and offered the opportunity to choose XX (girl) or XY (boy) embryo for implantation. The test may reveal there there is a limited number of embryos of the desired sex.
Gender selection by PGD offers the opportunity for parents to realize their dreams of having the girl or boy they had hoped for. Contact our team of experts to help guide you through the PGD process and schedule you for a consultation.
Learn more about PGD and Ohio Reproductive Medicine
If you would like to learn more information about preimplantation genetic diagnosis and family balancing, please contact our Ohio Reproductive Medicine team. We will work with you to understand your family needs, and discuss family balancing in its entirety with you.
At Ohio Reproductive Medicine, you are our top priority. We strive to provide you with a warm, welcoming team and comforting atmosphere at our office. In addition, we give you the tools and resources needed to achieve your ultimate goal—parenthood. Contact us today to learn more about Ohio Reproductive Medicine’s unparalleled treatments and services.